MOSCOW — For many years, the word "password" and "123456" were the world's most frequently used passwords. Although people have grown more security conscious and technology-savvy, the world of hacking is developing at a faster pace.

To draw attention to this problem, scientists from Ben-Gurion University of the Negev recently demonstrated how to steal data from a computer that had been disconnected from all networks. They used Fansmitter, a software that can select a desired file on a computer and transmit the information on it through the air, literally.

The technology works on the premise that all information on a computer is in binary code, that is, either 1 or 0. In order to transmit a 1, the program launches a series of complicated calculations. The processor begins to work at full capacity, causing it to heat up and making the internal fan spin faster and louder. If it's slower and quieter, the program transmits a 0. The noise is recorded on a nearby smartphone that is then broadcast to another source.

"Remember how in the film Seventeen Moments of Spring a pot was placed on the window, which meant that all is well, and how its absence signified an ambush? That was the transfer of one bit of information through an unconventional way. Today, such opportunities are widespread in computer technologies," says Dmitry Kuznetsov, director of methodology and standardization at Positive Technologies, a cyber security firm.

This type of cyber crime is limited in its capability. It can only decipher one to two Kilobits of data over 24 hours. So, a top secret dossier may be out of reach. But the access code to a sensitive computer system can be obtained. This is particularly interesting given that all computers have fans, including ones that operate on nuclear power plants and military facilities. Is it then really possible to protect computer systems from leaks?

In Russia, unconventional information channels were studied in the mid-2000s. Back then, security services doubted such channels existed, and questioned whether or not allocating resources to fight them was a worthy cause. After their existence was proven by IT specialists, a national standard for information security was developed to prevent leaks. But the funding behind this branch was later cut off, according to experts, putting Russia in a vulnerable position.

National leaders across the world worry about the compromise of computer systems. It is believed that the era of cyber crime began in 1983, when a student, Kevin Mitnick, breached ARPANET — the predecessor of the modern Internet. He was able to infiltrate computer systems at the Pentagon, and gained access to all files at the U.S. Department of Defense.

Several years later, 16-year-old Jonathan James hacked into NASA's server and stole the source code for the International Space Station. Since then, the number of cyber crimes has rapidly increased.

The very first Interface Message Processor, ancestor of modern routers — Photo: FastLizard4

To avoid being detected by an antivirus, modern hackers specialize in masking what they are doing. Usually they steal information discreetly, hiding it in a massive flow of data that does not cause suspicion. You can encrypt text into a video or audio file in a way that will not change its size. For instance, you can hide encrypted information in a video clip of a family gathering. There are many ways to hide information, which is why tracing them is almost impossible.

For several years now, hackers have increased their working range to cover the "Internet of Things," that is, all gadgets that work at home and have network connectivity. From credit cards and cars to servers that contain medical information on patients, nothing is safe from hackers.

Smart home systems that combine several household appliances into one and have network access are of a particular interest to hackers. The refrigerator, alone, provides endless creative possibilities since owners allow the appliance to evaluate its contents and purchase replacements.

Cyber crimes like these are a rarity; voice-controlled appliances are targeted more often in security breaches. In addition to direct commands, these systems typically register all loud noises that they detect in a home and transmit the data through the Internet.

The "hits" this year included the hacking of a baby monitor and a toilet. Parents of a 3-year-old in San Francisco found out that the hacker was scaring the child at night by talking to him through the device. And a programmable toilet was pulled out of action by a group of hackers that gained access to all of its features. They were able to flush the toilet on command, frightening those using the toilet. Experts predict that we will soon spend the same amount of money protecting our gadgets as we do on their purchase.